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Drug Awareness

Morphine
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Morphine is naturally occurring substance in the opium poppy, Papaver Somniferous. It is a potent narcotic analgesic, and its primary clinical use is in the management of moderately severe and severe pain. After heroin, morphine has the greatest dependence liability of the narcotic analgesics in common use.

Morphine is administered by several routes (injected, smoked, sniffed, or swallowed); but when injected particularly intravenously, morphine can produce intense euphoria and a general state of well-being and relaxation. Regular use can result in the rapid development of tolerance to these effects. Profound physical and psychological dependence can also rapidly develop, and withdrawal sickness upon abrupt cessation of heroin use; many of the symptoms resemble those produced by a case of moderately severe flu.

Morphine is infrequently encountered in the North American street drug culture. However, mainly because of its availability in hospitals, there have been several documented cases of morphine dependence among health professionals.

Morphine is isolated from crude opium, which is a resinous prep of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum.

Morphine's street names are: "M", morph, and Miss Emma

Medical Uses

  • Symptomatic relief of moderately severe to severe pain.
  • Relief of certain types of difficult or labored breathing.
  • Suppression of severe cough (rarely).
  • Suppression of severe diarrhea (e.g., that produced by cholera).

 

Morphine is legally available only in the form of its water-soluble salts. Most common are morphine sulfate and morphine hydrochloride. Both are fine white crystalline powders, bitter to the taste. Both are soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol.

 

Morphine may be taken orally in tablet form, and can also injected subcutaneously, intramuscular, or intravenously; the last is the route preferred by those who are dependent on morphine.

 

effects of short term use are suppression the sensation of and emotional response to pain; euphoria; drowsiness, lethargy, relaxation; difficulty in concentrating; decreased physical activity in some users and increased physical activity in others; mild anxiety or fear; papillary constriction, blurred vision, impaired night vision, suppression of cough reflex.

Respiratory:

slightly reduced respiratory rate.

Gastrointestinal:

nausea and vomiting; constipation; loss of appetite; decreased gastric motility.

Other:

slight drop in body temperature; sweating; reduced libido; prickly or tingling sensation on the skin (particularly after intravenous injection).

This is an example of a morphine molecule.
morphinemolecule.jpg

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Below is an example of the size of morphine.
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different forms of how morphine goes into the body
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