Morphine is naturally occurring substance in the opium poppy, Papaver Somniferous. It is a potent narcotic analgesic, and
its primary clinical use is in the management of moderately severe and severe pain. After heroin, morphine has the greatest
dependence liability of the narcotic analgesics in common use.
Morphine is administered by several routes (injected, smoked, sniffed, or swallowed); but when injected particularly intravenously,
morphine can produce intense euphoria and a general state of well-being and relaxation. Regular use can result in the rapid
development of tolerance to these effects. Profound physical and psychological dependence can also rapidly develop, and withdrawal
sickness upon abrupt cessation of heroin use; many of the symptoms resemble those produced by a case of moderately severe
Morphine is infrequently encountered in the North American street drug culture. However, mainly because of its availability
in hospitals, there have been several documented cases of morphine dependence among health professionals.
Morphine is isolated from crude opium, which is a resinous prep of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum.
Morphine's street names are: "M", morph, and Miss Emma
- Symptomatic relief of moderately severe to severe pain.
- Relief of certain types of difficult or labored breathing.
- Suppression of severe cough (rarely).
- Suppression of severe diarrhea (e.g., that produced by cholera).
Morphine is legally available only in the form of its water-soluble salts. Most common are morphine sulfate and morphine
hydrochloride. Both are fine white crystalline powders, bitter to the taste. Both are soluble in water and slightly soluble
Morphine may be taken orally in tablet form, and can also injected subcutaneously, intramuscular, or intravenously; the
last is the route preferred by those who are dependent on morphine.
effects of short term use are suppression the sensation of and emotional response to pain; euphoria; drowsiness, lethargy,
relaxation; difficulty in concentrating; decreased physical activity in some users and increased physical activity in others;
mild anxiety or fear; papillary constriction, blurred vision, impaired night vision, suppression of cough reflex.
slightly reduced respiratory rate.
nausea and vomiting; constipation; loss of appetite; decreased gastric motility.
slight drop in body temperature; sweating; reduced libido; prickly or tingling sensation on the skin (particularly after